Warren Kelly, Matthew Ozolnieks, Michael Szapkiw, and Aaron D. Traphagen

Liberty University


















Need Identification

     The need for this learning unit can be traced to the purpose and mission of The Christian [1] Broadcasting Network. “The Christian Broadcasting Network (CBN) is a global ministry committed to preparing the nations of the world for the coming of Jesus Christ through mass media. Using television and the Internet, CBN is proclaiming the Good News to 218 nations and territories, with programs and content translated into 108 languages” (The Christian Broadcasting Network, n.d.b). “The mission of CBN and its affiliated organizations is to prepare the United States of America and the nations of the world for the coming of Jesus Christ and the establishment of the Kingdom of God on earth. CBN’s ultimate goal is to achieve a time in history when ‘the knowledge of the Lord will cover the earth as the waters cover the sea’” (The Christian Broadcasting Network, n.d.a).

Christians are always seeking resources to help them spiritually. In response, CBN has contributed news, information, and literature for Christians since it was founded. “In achieving CBN’s mission, the chief method is the strategic use of all forms of mass communication and the conduct of education that will train the young and old to understand how the principles of the Kingdom of God relate to those spheres of human endeavor that play a dominant role in our world” (http://www.cbn.com/about/mission/Mission_Statement.aspx). With the increasing growth of online education (Allen & Seaman, 2003) and the increase in students accessing online educational resources (National Center for Education Statistics, 2003), CBN realizes the anticipated and future needs of its partners and website visitors and wants to contribute more online learning and Christian resources. These resources are offered for free in hopes of benefitting anyone who accesses them.

There is also a felt need among administrative leaders at CBN that Christians in the church need to understand the basic principles of the Christian faith. Administration felt CBN should provide an e-learning course designed to be both practical and direct in its approach to train, inspire, and empower Christians from a Christian perspective.

The Millennium Project is an e-learning course designed to further serve CBN’s mission and to address the spiritual needs of Christians as previously outlined. This learning unit is part of a 10-module, multi-part course. Specifically, in this learning unit, the identified need is for Christians to understand the spiritual law of cause and effect (i.e. reciprocity) in their spiritual and physical lives.

Goal Statement

     Upon reading the learning materials and completing the learning unit related to the Law of Reciprocity, Christian e-learning students will be able to define the Law of Reciprocity, answer questions about verses (i.e. Luke 6:31-38) related to the Law of Reciprocity, and write a personal reflection discussing the benefits of living by the Law of Reciprocity and specific actions that can be personally put into practice.

Task Analysis

Broad Goal

Upon completion of the E-learning module students will be able to successfully explain and apply the Law of Reciprocity.

Gagné’s Learning Domain (1985).

The broad goal could be subdivided into two separate parts which fall under the verbal information and intellectual skills domains.  Requiring students to explain the Law of Reciprocity will require students to recall information regarding the definition and specific scriptures related to the primary goal; this would fall under the bodies of knowledge level of the verbal information domain.  Requiring students to apply the principles of the Law of Reciprocity to their lives and then write a reflection would fall within the rule using level of the Intellectual skills domain.

[2] Goal Sub-Steps

The Broad goal of this lesson can be divided into the following three sub-steps.

  1. Define the law of reciprocity
    1. Students will need to access the online module at CBN
    2. Students will read and reflect on Luke 6:31-38
    3. Students will read the lesson commentary provided online
    4. Students will write a definition of the Law of Reciprocity in their own words
  2. Answer specific questions about verses related to the Law of Reciprocity
    1. Students will need to access the online module at CBN
    2. Students will read and reflect on Luke 6:31-38
    3. Students will read the lesson commentary provided online
    4. Students will access the action graph evaluation sheet
    5. Students will rate their application of the Law of Reciprocity on a scale of 1-10
    6. Students will answer three reflective questions about their rating.
  3. Write a personal reflection discussing the benefits of applying the Law of Reciprocity and specific applications the student has made.
    1. Students will need to access the online module at CBN
    2. Students will read and reflect on Luke 6:31-38
    3. Students will read the lesson commentary provided online
    4. Students will have one week in which to apply the Law of Reciprocity in their personal life
    5. Students will write a reflection about how they applied the law to their lives
    6. Students will write about the effects that applying the law had in their life.

Graphical Representation


Context and Learner Analysis

Learner Analysis

The course is designed so that students without state-of-the-art equipment can still participate, but there are still minimum requirements.  It is assumed that students have access to a computer, either in their home or through some public venue such as a library.  Students must have a high speed Internet connection – either DSL or cable modem – so that they can view streaming video content.  Students will also have access to a copy of the Bible.

The students to whom this course is targeted are adult learners between the ages of 25 and 50.  They are attracted to distance learning by the convenience (Zhang, 2007).  Driscoll (2002) and Galvin (2002) found in separate studies that self-directed e-learning is a primary instructional format for adults in workplace training; the students using this course will, therefore, most likely be familiar with this type of e-learning.  Knowles (1984) and Houle (1961) also found that adult learners are typically self-directed, and are learning because of their own needs and interests.  Knowles (1984) also reminds us that adult learners are very concerned with practical application of the course material.

The learners are also interested in the content of the course; typically, they will have sought out the topic for themselves, or have been told about the course by a friend, family member, or co-worker.  In either case, they are taking the course because they are interested in their own spiritual development, and how to apply these specific spiritual principles to their daily lives.  They are familiar with CBN and trust them as a content provider on this topic.




Context Analysis

Dick, Carey, and Carey (2005) list two different factors involved in the learner’s context; the performance context and the learning context.

Performance Context

Dick, Carey, and Carey (2005) further identify four factors to consider in the performance context:

1.  Managerial Support: Essentially, this is a consideration of whether the knowledge the student is receiving will be supported externally.  In the case of this course, students will need support from their families and their churches in applying the principles they are learning.  It may be beneficial to provide the students’ pastors with a course overview for accountability purposes.

2.  Physical Aspects: These are the physical requirements for taking the course, which are elaborated upon above.

3.  Social Aspects: This is a consideration of whether the student is working alone or in a group.  It is assumed that students will be taking this course individually, for their own spiritual growth.

4.  Relevance of Skills: As mentioned above by Knowles (1984), adult learners need to feel that the course material is relevant to their own daily life.  The assessments for the lesson on the Law of Reciprocity focus on application and self-assessment on the part of the individual learner.

Learning Context

Dick, Carey, and Carey (2005) identify four factors to consider in the learning context:

1. Nature of Environment: This ties into the physical aspects of the Performance Context.  Students will typically be working at home, using their own equipment.

2.  Compatibility of the Environment (with the instructional requirements): This includes analysis of time constraints that the learner faces.  This course is to be delivered asynchronously, and taken at the learners’ schedule for the most part.  The only real time factor involved is the recommendation that the total course be completed over the course of 50 weeks, with 1 week per module.  Since there are 5 individual lessons per module, the students should expect to complete a lesson each weekday (on average).

3.  Compatibility of the Environment (with the learner’s needs): Included in this would be the ability of the learner to study in quiet, free from distractions.  This is something that is almost totally up to the learner to control in this case.

4.  Feasibility for Simulating the Workplace: How well can the learner put into practice what they are learning?  As mentioned above, the focus of the assessment in this lesson is application and self-assessment.

Instructional Objectives

1.  Given a copy of Luke 6:31-38 from the New Century Version of the Bible, students will write a definition, in their own words, which accurately portrays the Law of Reciprocity

2.  Given a copy of the Bible, students will accurately identify three examples of the Law of Reciprocity within Scripture.

3.  Given a copy of Luke 6:31-38 from the New Century Version of the Bible and an Action graph evaluation sheet, students will complete the Action Graph and write three reflective answers about their personal rating, which demonstrate an accurate understanding of the Law of Reciprocity.

4.  Given a copy of Luke 6:31-38 from the New Century Version of the Bible students will respond to three reflective questions related to the Law of Reciprocity.

5.  Having read through the Law of Reciprocity module and completed all previous assessments students will apply the Law of Reciprocity in their personal lives and write a reflective blog which illustrates an accurate application of the Law of Reciprocity.


     Since this course is not an academic exercise, rather more of an exercise in personal growth, the assessments must reflect this. This is done by making the assessments more reflective and not as rigorous as those used in an academic setting. This unit incorporates assessment tools which utilize multiple choice and open ended answer questions.

The use of multiple choice web form Action Graphs allows each student to put his response on a scale or continuum.  The use of Action Graphs as bookends at the beginning and end of the course allows the student to document his progress in the unit. This will, in turn be used by each student to determine which aspects of the course they need to review and reinforce (Sanchis, 2001).

The use of this web form also allows unit designers to review the effectiveness of the instructional method and learning objects in each segment of the online course (Sanchis,2001).

The personal nature of the reflection by each student in the assessment prevents students from taking advantage of others who might normally intervene on behalf of the student. Additionally, by offering numerous methods of assessment, students at different levels of cognitive ability and learning style will likely identify with, and find success with, the assessments at some point, thus giving each student a reasonable opportunity to experience success within the course. (Gustafson, 2003). This success will become a foundation upon which the student may build future growth (Fehring, 2005).

Skill Objective [3] Assessment
Pre-Assessment Determine student baseline of knowledge Written essay
Define the Law of Reciprocity students will write a definition, in their own words Written definition
Explain the Law of Reciprocity demonstrate their understanding of the Law of Reciprocity by responding to three reflective questions in writing Reflective questionnaire
Reflect on the Law of Reciprocity evaluate their personal application of the Law of Reciprocity by selecting a number on a scale of one through ten Action graph
Apply and Explain the Law of Reciprocity Apply the Law of Reciprocity in their daily lives then write a reflective blog which details that application and any perceived results Personal reflective essay

Instructional Strategy

     Dick, Carey, and Carey (2005) identify four elements of an instructional strategy:

  1. Content Sequence and Clustering

To accomplish the goals of the module, students will spend about thirty minutes engaged in various activities.  Below, the instructional components are discussed with the time required to complete each task.

Introduction  2:00

Students is of this module are generally adult professional Christians.  In the introduction they are instructed in general aspects of the Law of Reciprocity.  Previewing the lesson allows the student to begin the process of developing his or her own concept of the Law of Reciprocity as the lesson.

Prayer            1:00

Beginning a lesson is an important step for the instructor and his students. Spiritual discipline focuses the learner’s mind and reduces distractions.  This step also leads the student into the foundational principles for the module, which is the scriptural basis for the principle.

Module Scripture     2:00

The foundational principles for this module are based in Scripture.  As we instruct students in the Law of Reciprocity it is important for students to understand that all knowledge is rooted in God’s Revelation.  Knowledge also points to the providence of God and instructs us in His ways.  Scriptural knowledge involves a person’s whole being, including the intellect.  Knowledge leads to a response, commitment and service in the learner.  Basing our lesson in Scripture increases the effect of the lesson with the Christian (Van Brummelen, 2009).

Lesson Commentary            1:30

This is a written overview of the lesson.  Here, the student gains a better understanding of how the Law of Reciprocity works.

Lesson Review           2:00

Student reviews commentary by writing their definition and understanding of the Law of Reciprocity, expanding on the information that they have already received.

Video Presentation   7:00

Pat Robertson presents the Law of Reciprocity using Scriptural and every-day examples of the Law at work.  In this step, the student’s understanding of the Law of Reciprocity is reinforced and further developed.

Reflection Questions           5:00

Guided by questions based on the Law of Reciprocity, students will write their reflections on the Law of Reciprocity.

Action Graph 3:00

Using the Action Graph students evaluate their personal application of the Law of Reciprocity by selecting answers on a numeric scale of one through ten.

Journal Notes                       3:00 / (Student driven)

Journal notes are written by the student to help them reflect back on the learning objectives of the module.  Here, the student reviews his new understanding of the Law of Reciprocity as described in the module.  Journaling is an effective means of assessing student understanding of instructional objectives (Marzano, 2001).  This element is comprised of two parts.  The first part uses direct questions to elicit student responses.  Part two is a self-application reflection question.  It is indefinite in its time scale due to the nature of the question.  Students will reflect on how the Law of Reciprocity is applied to their own lives.  This may take a few minutes or days depending on the student.

What did you think?  3:00

This is the course survey.  In this section, students reflect on their personal growth as a result of the module.  This will allow course designers to make adjustments to future versions of the module in order to increase the impact of the course in future students’ lives.

  1. Learning Components: 

Davidson-Shiver and Rasmussen (2006) describe four learning components.  They are Orient to learning, Instruction and Content, Measurement and Summary and Closure.

Orient to Learning

In the first component, Orient to Learning, the student is presented with the module introduction.  The welcome text for the module on the Law of Reciprocity uses a standard background and graphics that are used throughout the course.

Course objectives are displayed in a bulleted form so the student is able to develop a clear understanding of the objectives and expectations for the module.

The Law of Reciprocity is described to the student in a manner that conveys the importance of understanding and applying its precepts in his daily life.  As a believer, this concept is solidified through the use of scriptural examples.

Prior knowledge of the Law of Reciprocity is reviewed to help the learner identify misconceptions and build a stronger understanding of its concepts.  This step may work as a kind of student pre-assessment to help the learner gauge his personal development in the area of understanding the Law of Reciprocity.

The learner is directed as to how he should begin or continue by clicking on the embedded link at the bottom of the page.

Instruction and content

The second component is Instruction and Content.  In this component all instructional content is presented.  For this module direct instruction is presented in both text and video.   Learning cues are presented through Biblical and real-life examples of the Law of Reciprocity at work.  The opportunity for practice is presented through the challenge for each learner to reflect upon and apply the law to their daily life for one week.  Following this, learners will consider the impact of this reflection and application on themselves and others through journaling.  Learners will review the concepts presented and give their feedback on the module.


The third component is Measurement.  Assessments are carefully spaced in the module to allow the learner to absorb new concepts prior to the next assessment.  These assessments are made up of Action Graph, Reflection questions and reflective essay.

Summary and Closure

The fourth component is Summary and closure.  This component must be given serious consideration.  Here the learner’s understanding of the Law of Reciprocity is enhanced.  Here the learner is challenged to continue to apply the concepts within the module for the rest of their lives.  Reflection questions are designed to remind the learner of what they have learned and drive them toward daily application of the concepts.

This step also allows the learner the chance of remediation in the area of unlearned objectives.  An Action Graph is used to gauge learner understanding.  Finally, learners are provided the opportunity for retention through journaling and reflection on the lessons presented in the module.

  1. Student Groupings
    1. Students will be working independently.
  2. Selection of Media and [4] Delivery Systems
    1. Asynchronous distance learning environment.  Delivered primarily through the website for the course (currently http://www.cbn.com/noindex/mk25/millennium_project_beta/index.aspx).  Media use would include video as well as text

Media Selection

  • Are additional supports needed to access the media (e.g. plug-ins, special software, etc)?

The video on the site is embedded using Javascript; this ensures compatibility with all major browsers (it has been tested on Opera 11.10, Chrome 10.0.648.205, Firefox 4.0, Internet Explorer 9.0.8112.16421, and Safari 5.0.5).  The only software requirement is that the student be using a Java-compatible browser and have up to date software.

  • What are the computer capability requirements that learners need to use the media?

Students will need a high-speed Internet connection to be able to view the videos.  Alternative viewing methods include mobile phone or portable media player (iPod, iPad, etc.), but these are not required.  The student will need an up to date Internet browser (see above) that is Javascript compatible.

  • What are the bandwidth requirements that learners need to use the media?

The video for this lesson is 7 minutes long, and is 39.9 MB (Standard) [74.5 MB Large].  Bandwidth requirements would be fairly small for this video; the video is encoded at 761 kb/s, so would only require 761 kb/s of bandwidth per user for either standard or large video.

  • Who will create the media? What skills are needed?

This course is using existing video provided by The Christian Broadcasting Network.  The videos only need to be converted to .mp4 format so that they can be viewed by students.  Required skills for the instructor/facilitator in this regard would simply be to use software to convert and upload the videos.












The Millennium Project, Course Schedule

 Mod #





Instructional Content/ Materials


Student Participation

Media Development and Implementation


Time Allotments/ Notes

Module 2, Part 1:



 Welcome and Prayer  Pray to God

Module 2, Part 1:



 Overview and Pre-assessment Action graph on student’s prior knowledge or concept of the Law of Reciprocity.

Module 2, Part 1:

Module Scripture


 Scriptural Foundation

Module 2, Part 1:

Lesson Commentary


Module 2, Part 1:

Video Presentation


 Reciprocity video Presentation

Module 2, Part 1:

Reflection Questions


 Scriptural and Personal Application  Student writes reflectively to demonstrate his understanding of the application of the Law of Reciprocity both by citing Scriptural examples of the Law at work and showing how the Law might apply in daily life.

Module 2, Part 1:

Action Graph


Personal Assessment  Student completes the Action Graph to show the progress of his understanding of the concept of the Law of Reciprocity.

Module 2, Part 1:

Journal Notes

 Reflection and Personal Application  Student writes reflectively about how the Law of Reciprocity applies to his life.  Each student is encouraged to reflect on past and present application of the law, as well as reflecting on how outcomes may have changed with the application of the principles included in the Law of Reciprocity.


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